“Adult development is the scientific study of changes in behaviors, thoughts, and emotions that occur throughout adulthood” (Ziegler, 2014). We think of development as progress or growth, but we can also see development as declines in a person. A person gets taller, smarter, and older and with time gets shorter, weaker and considerably slower (Ziegler, 2014). Ziegler explains that development differs for every individual in varying levels including wealth and poverty, differences in industrialized and underdeveloped nations, and medical advances throughout history. Development occurs across the lifespan of a person and is intertwined with the environment, our experiences, and biological factors (Ziegler, 2014).
An overview of the theories of development by four major theorists Freud, Erikson, Vygotsky, and Kohlberg. How do we develop physically, cognitively, and morally?
Daniel Levinson developed a comprehensive theory of adult development. He suggests that development and growth occur into adulthood, and does not only refer to childhood. Levinson explains that their social and physical environment, which involves family and work as well as religion, race, and status, shapes a person’s life (Ziegler, 2014).
According to Erikson, as we get older, we slow down our productivity and begin to contemplate our accomplishments and develop integrity if we see ourselves leading a successful life. But, if we see our lives as unproductive, or that we have not met our goals, we become dissatisfied with our lives and develop despair, which often leads to depression (Ziegler, 2014).
Paul Baltes used the theoretical propositions in order to understand what is meant by lifespan. Baltes identified seven propositions, one of which indicates that development is a lifelong process. Others focus on multidirectionality; the view of aging as development and not only decline, to see it as gain and loss as in a couple having a baby (gain), but losing their independence (loss). Paul Baltes explains lifespan through a list of guided propositions, which are used to study growth, stability, and change from the beginning of adulthood to the end of life in physical, developmental, and psychosocial development (Ziegler, 2014).
As a person ages, there are visible signs that take effect, such as the skin begins to develop lines and sagging. A person’s hair begins to thin and turn grey. Fat begins to settle in the lower abdominal area; for men, weight settles in the mid area, while women may notice accumulation of weight in the hip area.
According to Westerhof and colleagues, the meta analyses on longevity indicate heterogeneity with stronger effects for studies with a shorter period of follow up, for studies on health versus survival, for studies with younger participants and a median age of 63, and for studies in welfare systems, where the provisions are minimal. In this article, The Influence of Subjective Aging on Health and Longevity: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Data the findings expand on existing longitudinal studies on the effects of subjective aging health, health behaviors, and longevity.
Effects did not vary across the operation of different subjective aging or by study quality, nor did subjective aging have a significant effect on health, health behaviors and survival. The results show a similar outcome with a more positive subjective aging associated with better health outcomes and greater longevity. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses were also performed, where heterogeneity continued to exist and show that individuals’ attitudes towards their own aging have stronger effects than age identity. But, it did show significant differences in effects indicating they are stronger for health than survival.
The forum which consists of speakers from the Harvard School of Public Health and the Huffington Post discuss new science information on nutrition, exercise, cognition, and social connectedness with the intent to promote healthy and happy lives as we age.
Each stage of a person’s life is important. Aging adults can obtain information on health and health care, legal and financial matters, work life and retirement, psychological issues, and social roles and resources.
Here you will find thought provoking and encouraging resources you may need to improve or enhance your lifestyle. Are you a young adult, middle-aged adult, or older adult looking ahead to a brighter future? You can obtain information this information at any time in your life or as needed. Enjoy your life and be better informed about your health, finances, and other areas that might affect you and your wellbeing.
Aging in Hollywood & What’s Really Attractive
Health and Illness
Intelligence. Memory, and Cognition
Leading with Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace
Healthy Aging of the Brain to Mild Cognitive Impairment
Personality and Identity
What Makes You, You?
Social Roles and Relationships
Nutrition and Socialization
Cognitive Risk Declines with Activity and Socialization
According to research conducted at Rush University Medical Center, frequent social activity may help to prevent or delay cognitive decline in old age. It is unclear why social activity plays a role in the development of cognitive problems. According to this study, “social activity challenges older adults to participate in complex interpersonal exchanges. They said that future research is needed to determine whether interventions aimed at increasing late-life social activity can play a part in delaying or preventing cognitive decline.
Rush University and Duke University conducted a study that showed people with broad social networks did not manifest Alzheimer’s even though after death autopsy revealed they had the tangles and plaques associated with the disease. The American Journal of Psychiatric Health conducted a study that showed that social support helps protect against dementia, while another study in the Journal of Pain, showed that social support reduces pain and depression (Cirillo, 2011).
TEDxWomen – Laura Carstensen
Work, Education and Retirement
Match Your Personality Careers
RIASEC at Work – Match Your Personality of Careers: talks about finding the right job. Many people are not happy in their job because they have not found the right fit. Each job requires its won set of skills so not every job is for everybody and vice versa. Your personality is a major factor in determining which career path is right for you. People who find a match for their personality are happier in their job. The woman in the video discusses John Holland and the theory of vocational personalities. She goes on to discuss the six personality traits: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional. The Big Five Factors (traits): extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and intellect or openness to experience, are also discussed and illustrated as the person is explaining.
The video is visually attractive and easy to follow. A person can rewind and hear the information as often as they want to refer to it, and/ or take notes. The video guides you through different videos that discuss specific areas separately, like the vocational personalities, trait theories, the five-factor model, etc. It is an excellent teaching model for those who prefer visual model.
Oprah on Career, Life & Leadership
Stress, Stress Management, and Mental Health
Emotion, Stress, and Health
How Stress Affects Your Health
Geriatric Depression Scale